Five Differences Between British and American Education Systems

Academic Writing HelpThe United Kingdom and the United States of America both out-stand rest of the world in terms of having a distinguished and an exceptional education system because every other top university is located either located in the USA or the UK. Here students get to explore an environment which is not only rich in terms of gaining knowledge theoretically but also provides opportunities to them to master the art of implementing their knowledge practically. There is no doubt in the fact that both the countries cater their students in an incredible way and facilitate them in terms of completing higher education. However, there are some notable differences between the two education systems concerning the quality of student life and the education system. Some of the key differences between the UK and US students are given below.

Time duration for Degree Completion

Time length required to complete the degree requirements is the most important difference between the UK and the US education systems. Following are some of the differences between the two regarding time period required for degree completion.

  • It takes one year more in the US than the UK.
  • In both cases the student can opt for PhD program after his or her undergraduate degree but in the UK it’s more common to start with PhD program after the completion of master’s degree.
  • Students under the UK education system have to write course works that are not much diversified and they stick on to the major areas that they have selected unlike the US students who apart from their major course work also get to explore other subjects of various fields.
  • For the US students it takes longer time to complete their degree requirements than the UK students because the US students have to cater for more subjects and activities.

Focus of the Education System

  • The UK education system encourage students to review their concerned fields which keeps their focus mainly on the aspects of their own area of study. It aims to make students excel in the area of study they have opted for whereas the students of the US, apart from their major subjects, study other subjects outside the scope of their majors and experience the breadth of various fields.

Student Homework and Grading Criteria

  • As the education system of the US gives more consideration to the breadth of different academic fields of study, students have to prove their capabilities by undertaking assignments, quizzes, presentations, and formal exam covering percentage of the overall course mark. The rest of the grading depends on other tasks of the semester.
  • Unlike the US education system, in the UK the students undergo one final exam mostly with some occasional assignments. At times no assignments are required to be completed rather the final grade is based on one final exam.

Cost and accommodation

Country

 

Education cost Type of accommodation
US Higher

Public institutions 2 years cost: Around $ 3000/year

Private institutions 4 years cost: $ 50,000/year

Provide students with residence halls to live. Students also share bedrooms with at least two students in each.
UK Moderate

Approximately $ 14,300/year

Usually it’s common to have single bedrooms. Bedroom sharing has also become common in the recent years.

Student traits

  • US students love having parties and drinking alcohol though the legal age for drinking is 21. In UK students can drink at the age of 18.
  • UK students are more self-disciplined than the US students.

 

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Writing an Abstract

abstractAbstracts

Faced with the daunting task of writing an abstract for their article, dissertation or thesis many academics and research students get abstracted. They allow themselves to get separated from the job in hand, they withdraw from making a serious attempt to do what is required and they absent themselves from the task. How, then, can academics and research students stay focused on writing a good abstract and not let themselves get abstracted in or disengaged from the process?

Structuring a PhD abstract

A typical way of structuring a PhD abstract is:

  • Paragraph 1 – research purpose: an outline of its context, rationale, research question and limits = what was investigated
  • Paragraph 2 – research design: an outline of the research paradigm/conceptual framework and methods used = how the topic was investigated
  • Paragraph 3 – research findings = what was found
  • Paragraph 4 – contribution to knowledge = research conclusions (after Trafford & Leshem, 2008: 149-150)

Most universities require abstracts to be written according to their own specific requirements which you must follow. There is little or no scope for you to be creative in writing an abstract for a dissertation or thesis. You are required to write your abstract in exactly the way the university’s research committee has decided. If they want it written using a specific structure but without sub-headings and in a stated number of words then you must comply.

Another approach to writing abstracts suggests:

  • Two sentences summarizing the literature
  • Three sentences on the conceptual contribution or main theme
  • One sentence on the methods used
  • One sentence each to summarize the argument of each main chapter
  • Two sentences crystallizing and evaluating the main conclusions (based on Dunleavy, 2003, 204-205)

Abstracts for journals

Writing abstracts for journals requires you to include key details. Failure to include key details in abstracts may be remedied by writing structured abstracts using such headings as: Background, Aims, Methods, Findings, Limitations and Conclusions (see Hartley and Betts 2009, 2016). Another version of the structured abstract uses the following headings: Purpose, Design/methodology/approach, Findings, Practical implications, Originality/value (from Education + Training at http://www.emeraldinsight.com). These headings have the merit of making you focus not only on providing a well-structured abstract but of also helping you consider the most important content or issues to be covered.

As ever, writers of articles are advised to read the target journal’s Author Guidelines for clear advice. Reading the instructions may well save time and effort. This is especially true when it comes to the number of words allowed and whether or not subheadings are required.

Main requirements for writing abstracts as seen by PhD students

The requirements referred to here are based on analyses of abstracts made, during an academic writing workshop held in April 2010, with over 20 PhD students:

  • The research question, gap in knowledge and rationale for the research needs to be addressed with clarity
  • The methodology used should be succinctly and accessibly expressed for its expected audience
  • Key findings which reflect the main contents of the paper/thesis should be carefully set out
  • The main conclusions, contribution to knowledge and major recommendations need to be made explicit

Other points that abstract writers need to bear in mind include:

  • The need to structure the abstract clearly
  • The need to make a careful selection of keywords and key terms (many journals require writers to produce a separate set of three to six keywords)
  • Because abstracts are usually the first aspect (after the title) of their article or thesis that readers see then they become an important marketing tool for the rest of their work
  • Abstracts should not contain either acronyms or references and should always meet the requirement of conference/journal/university regulations
  • Abstracts should always be written and seen as free-standing and therefore as clearly understandable texts

Common errors or failures in abstract-writing

These errors are based on an analysis of 40 abstracts submitted for a prize awarded for the best abstract at a research conference for PhD students in May 2010. In the call for abstracts all candidates were provided with a set of guidance notes about what the abstracts should contain, how they should be written and a specimen of how they should be formatted.

Of the 40 abstracts submitted:

  • only 16 conformed to the correct format
  • only 21 provided a set of keywords
  • only 16 conformed to the four paragraph requirement

In all, only six candidates managed to produce an abstract which fully complied with the specified requirements.

Typical format errors included:

  • A total failure to pay any attention at all to the specimen abstract provided
  • Failure to follow requirements in the use of upper case, lower case and underlining
  • Inappropriate use of punctuation
  • Use of abbreviations in the abstract title
  • Spelling errors

Abstract writing errors or failures included:

  • Failure to specify, in four separate paragraphs, what was investigated, how the topic was investigated, what was found and what conclusions could be drawn
  • The use of one, two, three or five paragraphs instead of four
  • The use of abbreviations such as ‘c.’ for ‘about’ or ‘etc.’
  • The use of paragraph headings
  • Spelling errors
  • Poor grammar
  • Poor sentence construction (including one 89-word sentence)
  • Use of references
  • Inappropriate use of bullet points
  • Inappropriate use of jargon

Overall conclusion

Abstracts should comply with the requirements set by universities and/or journals and should be written in a clear, direct style. Abstracts are ‘tiny texts’ (see Kamler and Thomson 2006) which compress the argument of an article or a thesis into a small number of words and a small textual space. As such they also invite public interest in the topic investigated and the methods used as well as in the findings and conclusions reached.

 

© Copyright for this article belongs to Dr Graham Badley

This document was re-printed with the kind permission of Dr. Gerard Sharpling. Original Source of the article is located here: http://web.anglia.ac.uk/anet/rdcs/research/info/Abstracts.pdf